One single kanji may have more than one different readings. Those readings are classified in three different groups: On'yomi, Kun'yomi and Nanori.

The reading coming from the original Chinese pronunciation of the character. It's commonly used in multi-kanji compound words and usually written in katakana.
The reading coming from the pronunciation of a native Japanese word. Commonly used in words consisting of just one kanji and usually written in hiragana. Where relevant the okurigana is also included separated by 「·」. Readings associated with prefixes and suffixes are marked with 「〜」.
The pronunciations found almost exclusively in Japanese names.
  • On'yomi
  • Kun'yomi


Meaning of the kanji. This meaning may come from both the On'yomi and the Kun'yomi readings.

  • invariably, certain, inevitable
  • nécessairement, certain, inévitable, invariablement
  • invariavelmente, inevitável, certo
  • sin falta, necesariamente, inevitable, ciertamente

Stroke order

Each stroke in a kanji ideogram is written following a specific order. This order is supposed to be always the same and follows specific rules.

The basic rule is to write from top to bottom and from left to right.

  • Number of strokes: 5

Components of this kanji

Most kanji can be decomposed into smaller parts. Those parts are called radicals and they are often semantic indicators of the meaning of the character.

  • Radical 61

    heart, feeling

  • Radical 4

    a stroke curved to the left

Popular compounds containing this kanji

Some of most popular compounds containing this kanji. The meaning of those words might or might not be related with the meaning of the kanji itself.

Miscellaneous information

Some other useful information about this kanji. Like the number of strokes or the relative frequency of occurrence of a character in modern Japanese.

  • Number of strokes: 5
  • Taught in grade 4
  • Frequency: 265
  • "Modern Reader's Japanese-English Character Dictionary" by Andrew Nelson: 129
  • "The New Nelson Japanese-English Character Dictionary", by John Haig: 1781
  • "New Japanese-English Character Dictionary", by Jack Halpern: 15
  • "Kanji Learners Dictionary" by Jack Halpern: 6
  • "Remembering The Kanji" by James Heisig: 635
  • "A New Dictionary of Kanji Usage": 292
  • "Japanese Names", by P.G. O'Neill: 120
  • "Essential Kanji" by P.G. O'Neill: 281
  • "Daikanwajiten" by Morohashi: 10299:4:951
  • "A Guide To Remembering Japanese Characters" by Kenneth G. Henshall: 568
  • "Kanji and Kana" by Spahn and Hadamitzky: 520
  • "A Guide To Reading and Writing Japanese" by Florence Sakade: 497
  • Japanese Kanji Flashcards, by Max Hodges and Tomoko Okazaki. (Series 1): 526
  • "A Guide To Reading and Writing Japanese" 3rd edition, by Henshall, Seeley and De Groot: 597
  • Tuttle Kanji Cards, by Alexander Kask: 453
  • "The Kanji Way to Japanese Language Power" by Dale Crowley: 188
  • "Kanji in Context" by Nishiguchi and Kono: 423
  • "Japanese For Busy People" vols I-III, The codes are the volume.chapter: 3.16
  • "Kodansha Compact Kanji Guide": 767
  • "Les Kanjis dans la tete" by Yves Maniette: 642

  • skip: 1-1-4
  • sh_desc: 0a5.16
  • four_corner: 3300.0
  • deroo: 359